2011-2013
Subtheme 3.2: Land Resource Management for Poverty Reduction (GRP 39)
Centers/ProgramsIFPRI
Target RegionsAsia, CWANA, LAC, SSA
Countries of Planned Research Potential Beneficiary Countries
 
Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Uganda
 
Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Uganda
CGIAR Priorities
2A - Maintaining and enhancing yield potential of food staples
2B - Tolerance to selected abiotic stresses
3A - Increasing income from fruit and vegetables
3B - Income increases from livestock
4A - Integrated land, water and forest management and landscape level
4C - Improving water productivity
4D - Sustainable agro-ecological intensification in low- and high-potential environments
5A - Science and technology policies and institutions
5C - Rural institutions and their governance
5D - Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability
New Research Areas - New Research Areas
Financing Sources
Members: ADB, Australia, Brazil, Canada, European Commission, FAO, Germany, IFAD, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, World Bank

Non Members: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Blue Moon Fund, Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa FARA, Foundation for Investment and Export Development, Howard G. Buffett Foundation, International Finance Corporation, Jordan, KickStart International, National Fadama Development Office, Others, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), Stanford University, START Secretariat, Technical University of Denmark, United Nations University, University of Aarhus, University of Illinois, Unres+Other Sources, VirginiaTech, World Food Program (WFP), Yale University
Project Overview and Rationale

Goal

The goal of Subtheme 3.2 is to promote poverty reduction through more productive, equitable, and sustainable use of land-based resources in developing countries. It will achieve this goal through identification and promotion of more effective strategies (policies, institutions, programs, and projects) to promote poverty reduction through SLM.

Overview

Land-based resources are a critical asset to most poor people in developing countries who rely on such resources to generate most of their income and subsistence goods. The management of land-based resources, including cropland, grazing land, forests, and wetlands, can have a major impact on the welfare of direct resource users, as well as on many others via impacts on flows of environmental services. If governments, farmers, and others are to be convinced to undertake more or different actions to promote Sustainable Land Management (SLM), better evidence is needed as to why intervention is necessary, where and for whom intervention is likely to be effective, what impacts can be expected from interventions in different contexts, what trade-offs among the objectives of decision makers are likely to arise, and how interventions can be improved and their beneficial impacts scaled up and out. Policymakers also need information that can help them to integrate SLM programs into broader development and poverty reduction strategies. Research under Subtheme 3.2 is providing information to policymakers, donor governments, development practitioners, and the broader research and development community on strategies to promote poverty reduction through SLM.

Contribution to Challenge and Systemwide Programs

Researchers in Subtheme 3.2 are collaborating with the new Sub-Saharan Africa Challenge Program (SSACP) in projects in Eastern and Central Africa and in Southern Africa, with a major focus on promoting integrated natural resource management. All of the outputs of this subtheme will contribute to the SSACP, but particular emphasis will be given to assessing impacts of land management practices and programs promoting SLM (Outputs 2 and 3).

Researchers in subtheme 3.2 are leading the policies, institutions, and markets theme under the Oasis Systemwide program on desertification. IFPRI’s contributions are expected to emphasize Outputs 3 and 4 (assessing impacts of alternative policies, policy process, governance structures, and programs, and disseminating lessons learned about what works where and when).

Subtheme 3.2 also links with and builds on IFPRI’s leadership of CAPRi, particularly in addressing issues related to land tenure and property rights systems, collective action, and (more generally) environmental governance. Researchers will draw on the extensive literature and contacts developed by CAPRi, as well as contributing to CAPRi’s publication series and participating in conferences and workshops organized by or with CAPRi.

Subtheme 3.2 also builds on IFPRI’s past collaboration with CGIAR ecoregional programs, including the African Highlands Initiative, Alternatives to Slash and Burn, and the natural resources management work under the Participatory Research and Gender Analysis Program.


Project Outputs
Output Title
1: Key factors affecting SLM evaluated, with particular attention to gender issues, distribution of assets, and land markets.
Output Description
  • This output is being achieved by conducting and analyzing surveys of community and household land management practices and of the factors influencing them – including gender issues, asset distribution and land markets, among other factors – in study countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are being used to assess the key factors affecting SLM.
  • The comparative advantage of IFPRI in conducting this research is in using rigorous quantitative methods combined with qualitative methods to improve understanding of key factors affecting SLM in different contexts, and to scale up lessons learned across contexts. This research complements location specific studies being conducted by universities, and more agronomic oriented research led by other CGIAR centers.
  • The only change in this output from the previous MTP is that Latin America is also included as a target region of study (research in the highlands of Peru).
CGIAR Priorities
4A, 4D, 5C
Countries of Planned Research
Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Uganda
Intended Users
Programs, policymakers, researchers, donors and civil society organizations promoting SLM in study countries and elsewhere.
Outcome
Users are better informed about the role of gender, asset distribution and land markets in affecting SLM to foster agricultural growth and development.
Impact
Better targeted research and interventions to promote SLM for poverty reduction."

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2010
Policy strategies
Assessment of key factors affecting SLM completed in at least one case study country in Africa, Asia or Latin America.
2011
Policy strategies
Synthesis of key factors affecting SLM across case study countries completed.

Output Title
2: Impacts of land management practices on poverty and sustainability of the resource base assessed, and synergies or trade-offs evaluated.
Output Description
  • This output will be achieved through collection and analysis of survey data and field data, and use of modeling approaches to assess impacts of land management practices on farmers’ production and income as well as off-site impacts such as on carbon sequestration, sedimentation and water flows.
  • IFPRI’s comparative advantage in leading this type of research is based on its experience in combining biophysical and socioeconomic modeling approaches, as well as its experience in using statistical and qualitative approaches. Little research is being done on off-site impacts of land management practices linked to research on policy and socioeconomic drivers of land management (Output 1). This research is complementary to natural science and agronomic research being led by other CGIAR centers, to modeling work led by some universities in specific contexts, and to broad scale modeling led by IFPRI such as the IMPACT model. The research will seek to scale up local scale modeling approaches and scale down large scale modeling to a meso scale, and link these models to broader scale statistical approaches, adding value to other current and planned research.
  • The only change in this output from the previous MTP is to include Latin America as one of the target regions.
CGIAR Priorities
4A, 4D
Countries of Planned Research
Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Peru
Intended Users
As above
Outcome
Users are better informed about impacts of land management practices in different contexts and trade-offs or synergies involved in promoting them to foster agricultural growth and development.
Impact
Better targeted research on SLM. Better targeted interventions on SLM for poverty reduction."

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2010
Policy strategies
Impacts assessed and documented in at least one case study country in Africa, Asia or Latin America.
2011
Policy strategies
Impacts of SLWM evaluated across case-study countries in Sub-Saharan African and Central Asian countries.
2011
Policy strategies
Synthesis of impacts across case study countries completed.

Output Title
3: The role, implementation and impact of different approaches to promoting SLM and the potential for synergies among different approaches evaluated.
Output Description
  • This output will be achieved by reviewing literature, conducting and analyzing surveys, stakeholder assessments, modeling (building on models developed for Output 2) and other qualitative and quantitative methods to identify opportunities for and assess impacts of alternative approaches to promoting SLM in different contexts, such as technical assistance programs, community based natural resource management, rewards for environmental services, land tenure programs and policies, and other approaches.
  • IFPRI’s comparative advantage in this type of research is in its ability to take a broader and more policy-oriented perspective than academic researchers working on impacts of approaches to promoting SLM. Most other researchers tend to focus on a particular type of approach, such as land tenure interventions or other approach, without considering what alternative approaches may be more useful in particular contexts, or attempting to draw broader lessons concerning “what approach works where and why”. This research can draw upon the broad range of relevant research that IFPRI has led or is leading (e.g., on collective action, property rights, strategies for less-favored areas, development domains, impacts of technology approaches, etc.). It will be complementary to detailed research being led by academic researchers on specific approaches, drawing together findings across approaches and synthesizing lessons in a typology of contexts (see Output 1).
  • The only change from the previous MTP is to include Latin America as one of the target regions of the research.
CGIAR Priorities
4A, 4D, 5A, 5B, 5C, 5D
Countries of Planned Research
Niger
Intended Users
As above
Outcome
Users are better informed about impact of alternative approaches to promoting SLM and potential synergies among them to foster agricultural growth and development.
Impact
More effective interventions to promote SLM for poverty reduction."

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2010
Policy strategies
Roles, implementation and impacts of different approaches evaluated and documented in at least one study country in Africa, Asia, or Latin America.
2011
Policy strategies
Synthesis of roles, implementation and impacts of different approaches across case study countries completed.

Output Title
4: The effects of policies, policy processes and governance structures on the effectiveness of alternative SLM strategies assessed.
Output Description
  • This output will build on the previous outputs, which involve assessment of particular policies and governance structures (especially land policies and governance). It will seek to go beyond assessing particular policies and structures, assessing more generally how effectively policy processes and governance structures contribute to (or inhibit) SLM. The research will assess whether strategies and policies for SLM are consistent with or undermined by other policy processes, such as poverty reduction and rural development strategies, medium term expenditure frameworks, and development planning and budgeting processes. This research will be pursued through review of relevant literature and policy documents; consultations with key stakeholders in governments, donor organizations and civil society organizations; reviews of programs and expenditures related to SLM and their targeting, performance and impacts; and IFPRIresearchers’ participation in/contribution to policy and program processes related to SLM (e.g., providing inputs to development of Country Strategic Investment Frameworks and development programs for SLM under the World Bank-led TerrAfrica partnership).
  • IFPRI’s comparative advantage in this type of research is in its knowledge of policy processes and ability to relate those processes to implementation performance and impacts on the ground. Often policy processes lack information about actual implementation performance and impacts, so can have a sense of unreality. In this research, IFPRI researchers will seek to “speak truth to power”, providing analytical and empirical insights to help improve the functioning of these processes. This will be complementary to and build upon the other outputs of this research program, as well as research on policy processes related to natural resource management being led by other policy research and analysis organizations.
  • The only change from the previous MTP is to include Latin America as one of the target regions of the research.
CGIAR Priorities
4A, 4D, 5A, 5B, 5C, 5D
Countries of Planned Research
Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda
Intended Users
As above
Outcome
Users are better informed about the effects of policies, policy processes and governance structures on SLM strategies to foster agricultural growth and development.
Impact
Improved policies, policy processes and governance structures adopted, increasing the ability to scale up successful SLM strategies and thus alleviate poverty."

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2010
Policy strategies
Effects of policies, policy processes and governance structures on SLM strategies assessed and documented in at least one country case study in Africa, Asia or Latin America.
2011
Policy strategies
Synthesis of effects of policies, policy processes and governance structures on SLM strategies across case study countries completed.

Output Title
5: Adaptation and mitigation of climate change and variability through sustainable land and water management (SLWM) practice.
Output Description
SLM practices in general improve soil carbon, which in turn improve rainfall infiltration, water holding capacity, and improve soil structure. These attributes improve adaptation to climate change and variability and contribute to mitigation of climate change. The major research question is to understand farmers’ perception of climate change and how they use land management practices to adapt and respond to climate change and variability, and the factors that inhibit them from using land management practices that enhance adaptation to climate change. Special attention of the analysis will be directed to better understanding variation in perception and land management related responses to climate change across gender, poverty groups. Research will also be done on the impacts of different policies and strategies on adoption of SLM practices that enhance adaptation to climate change. The on-going research activities for this output are in Africa and central Asia and China. Latin American and more African and Asian countries will be added in future.
  • IFPRI’s comparative advantage in conducting this research is its capacity to do different levels of modeling from the global level to the household, plot and pixel level. IFPRI’s research in SLM is also an added comparative advantage
  • This is a new output but is related to all the previous outputs.
CGIAR Priorities
4A, 4D
Countries of Planned Research
n/a
Intended Users
Programs, policymakers, researchers, donors and civil society organizations promoting SLM in study countries and elsewhere.
Outcome
Users are better informed about the role of gender, asset distribution and land markets in affecting SLM to foster agricultural growth and development.
Impact
Better targeted research and interventions to promote SLM for poverty reduction."

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2011
Policy strategies
Synthesis of impacts across case-study countries completed

Note: Financial Tables, Target Regions, CGIAR Priorities and Financing Sources show aggregated data for more than one MTP project and in particular for: - Theme 3: Systemwide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi) - Subtheme 3.1: Water Resource Allocation: Productivity and Environmental Impacts (GRP 22) - Subtheme 3.2: Land Resource Management for Poverty Reduction (GRP 39)


Allocation of Member, Non-Member Grants and other sources to projects, 2009-2011
in $millions

Project Member Actual
2009
Estimated
2010
Proposal
2011
Project Total
5.595
5.505
5.566
Theme 3: Natural Resources PoliciesMemberADB
0.183
0.006
0.000
Australia
0.136
0.031
0.388
Brazil
0.072
0.000
0.000
Canada
0.276
0.037
0.000
European Commission
0.019
0.000
0.000
FAO
0.075
0.150
0.000
Germany
0.433
0.668
1.275
IFAD
0.029
0.564
0.410
Italy
0.121
0.226
0.244
Norway
0.421
0.719
0.328
Switzerland
0.000
0.025
0.030
World Bank
1.364
0.566
0.372
Non MemberBill and Melinda Gates Foundation
0.000
0.253
0.916
Blue Moon Fund
0.085
0.000
0.000
Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa FARA
0.043
0.000
0.000
Foundation for Investment and Export Development
0.000
0.056
0.000
Howard G. Buffett Foundation
0.000
0.006
0.000
International Finance Corporation
0.000
0.025
0.000
Jordan
0.000
0.001
0.000
KickStart International
0.000
0.087
0.085
National Fadama Development Office
0.086
0.000
0.000
Others
0.532
0.684
0.450
Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
0.000
0.028
0.000
Stanford University
0.625
0.554
0.291
START Secretariat
0.018
0.000
0.000
Technical University of Denmark
0.041
0.000
0.000
United Nations University
0.005
0.000
0.000
University of Aarhus
0.000
0.014
0.000
University of Illinois
0.024
0.000
0.000
VirginiaTech
0.041
0.010
0.000
World Food Program (WFP)
0.010
0.000
0.000
Yale University
0.003
0.018
0.015
Unres+Other SourcesUnres+Other Sources
0.953
0.777
0.762


Allocation of Project Costs to CGIAR Priorities, 2009-2013
in $millions

Project Actual
2009
Estimated
2010
Proposal
2011
Plan 1
2012
Plan 2
2013
Priorities
Theme 3: Natural Resources Policies
Project Total
5.595
5.505
5.566
5.788
6.020
2A
0.407
0.401
0.405
0.421
0.438
2B
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.042
0.043
3A
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.029
0.030
3B
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.029
0.030
4A
0.997
0.981
0.992
1.031
1.073
4C
0.997
0.980
0.992
1.032
1.073
4D
1.028
1.010
1.022
1.063
1.106
5A
0.685
0.674
0.681
0.708
0.737
5C
0.624
0.614
0.621
0.646
0.672
5D
0.705
0.694
0.701
0.729
0.758
New Research Areas
0.056
0.055
0.056
0.058
0.060


Project investment by developing Region, 2009-2013
in $millions

Project Target Regions Actual
2009
Estimated
2010
Proposal
2011
Plan 1
2012
Plan 2
2013
Project Total
5.595
5.505
5.566
5.788
6.020
Theme 3: Natural Resources PoliciesAsia
1.364
1.463
1.515
1.577
1.644
CWANA
0.044
0.089
0.068
0.071
0.075
LAC
1.250
1.081
1.198
1.246
1.300
SSA
2.937
2.872
2.785
2.894
3.001