2011-2013
Subtheme 3.1: Water Resource Allocation: Productivity and Environmental Impacts (GRP 22)
Centers/ProgramsIFPRI
Target RegionsAsia, CWANA, LAC, SSA
Countries of Planned Research Potential Beneficiary Countries
 
Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Cambodia, Mali, Peru, Vietnam
 
Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Cambodia, Mali, Peru, Vietnam
CGIAR Priorities
2A - Maintaining and enhancing yield potential of food staples
2B - Tolerance to selected abiotic stresses
3A - Increasing income from fruit and vegetables
3B - Income increases from livestock
4A - Integrated land, water and forest management and landscape level
4C - Improving water productivity
4D - Sustainable agro-ecological intensification in low- and high-potential environments
5A - Science and technology policies and institutions
5C - Rural institutions and their governance
5D - Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability
New Research Areas - New Research Areas
Financing Sources
Members: ADB, Australia, Brazil, Canada, European Commission, FAO, Germany, IFAD, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, World Bank

Non Members: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Blue Moon Fund, Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa FARA, Foundation for Investment and Export Development, Howard G. Buffett Foundation, International Finance Corporation, Jordan, KickStart International, National Fadama Development Office, Others, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), Stanford University, START Secretariat, Technical University of Denmark, United Nations University, University of Aarhus, University of Illinois, Unres+Other Sources, VirginiaTech, World Food Program (WFP), Yale University
Project Overview and Rationale

Clean freshwater is essential to sustain life, enable development, and support a healthy environment. Due to population and economic growth, water demand for household, industrial, and agricultural uses is increasing, while watersheds and irrigated land are deteriorating, and ground and surface water pollution is increasing. In much of the developing world, growing urban and industrial water demand will require transfers of water from agricultural uses, threatening food production and rural livelihoods.

Policymakers need to work toward making existing irrigation and water supply systems more efficient, equitable, and environmentally benign in order to mitigate growing pressures on water resources and enhance access by the poor to the increasingly valuable resource. Policymakers also need to address water pollution through improved water quality management as poor water quality limits the availability of water for some uses and affects the health of poor populations in developing countries. Water policy analysis under this project is carried out at four levels through which water scarcity (both quantity and quality) can fundamentally influence food production, rural livelihoods, and the environment: the global and regional level; the river-basin level; the local or irrigation-system level; and the national level.

Goals and Objectives

In the face of growing water scarcity, the primary goal of this project is to reduce poverty by improving overall water use efficiency in developing countries, while at the same time improving water quality, reducing the degradation of irrigated land, maintaining food security, and improving access to water by the poor. This project will provide policymakers with options for redressing growing water scarcity and water quality challenges through more efficient allocation of water and improved water management among sectors and within the agricultural sector, under global change.

Specific objectives for this project are:

  • to develop policies and investment options for improving water allocation mechanisms at the local system, and river-basin level that contribute to productivity, equity, and environmental goals;
  • to develop practical modeling tools that can be used by water planning agencies to estimate the economic value of water and analyze the consequences of different water allocation and management policies on water and food outcomes; and
  • to enhance national capacity to analyze the consequences of water policy options.

Contribution to Challenge and Systemwide Programs

This project links to “Global Drivers and Processes of Change”--Topic 4 of the Challenge Program on Water and Food Phase II research program. Part of this project also relates to Sub-theme 1: Global Food and Natural Resources: Strategies and Policies for Adapting to Global Change. This project also includes the coordinator of CAPRi and links to and builds on IFPRI’s leadership of CAPRi, particularly in addressing issues related to water use rights systems, collective action; and, more generally, water governance systems.



Project Outputs
Output Title
1: Develop enhanced rural water quality management options (links to subtheme 6.1).
Output Description
Under this research activity frameworks for rural water quality analysis and management are developed and applied to several case studies. The comparative advantage of IFPRI lies in linking institutional, qualitative with basin-level quantitative research. As no significant funding could be obtained for this research area to date, output targets will be moved forward by one year. It also has become less likely that a case study will be implemented soon in India as had been planned earlier since funding for water quality was diverted to climate change research by the donor. The comparative advantage of IFPRI lies in linking water quality with work on food safety; linking water quality with food production outcomes through fertilizers and pesticides; and through linking water quality with health and nutrition through the Agriculture and Health Initiative of IFPRI.
CGIAR Priorities
Countries of Planned Research
India, Peru
Intended Users
Water agencies, government and private sector, partner research institutes, local users.
Outcome
Stakeholders apply enhanced water quality management options for better health, productivity, food security, and livelihood in India and other case study countries. Public and private resources for rural development are spent more effectively on enhancing rural water quality and thus security. Enhanced long-term productive use of water resources in river basins.
Impact
Improved water (and food) security for the poor."

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
n/a
n/a
n/a

Output Title
2: Institutions and economic incentives developed that allow the poor to gain more access and to better manage water (quantity and quality) across uses, space, and time.
Output Description
This research examines the potential role of economic incentives for intersectoral water allocation in river basins, as well as the role of institutions, in particular, collective action institutions, governance processes, and power structures to determine the factors enhancing water allocation processes and decision-making processes in water allocation. This activity links to the CGIAR Systemwide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi).
CGIAR Priorities
5A, 5B, 5C, 5D
Countries of Planned Research
Chile, China, India
Intended Users
Researchers, water planning institutes and policymakers.
Outcome
(A) Enhanced water institutions and management allows the poor and disadvantaged groups to acquire access to water and to manage water use in a sustainable manner. (B) Water is used more efficiently and in more environmentally sustainable ways; enhanced long-term productive use of water resources in river basins.
Impact
Improved water (and food) security for the poor"

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2009
Policy strategies
Analysis of opportunities and constraints of water negotiations developed by assessing smaller and larger water resource management units
2010
Practices
Guidelines and research outputs on governance, institutions, and economic incentives for managing water quantities
2011
Practices
Guidelines and research outputs on governance, institutions, and economic incentives for managing water quality

Output Title
3: Develop policy options for reform of investments in irrigation water systems.
Output Description
This research activity focuses on determining irrigation investments needs as well as the physical location of irrigation investments for Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Over the last several years there have been calls to increase agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Irrigation has been identified as a main potential contributor to enhanced agricultural production in the region, particularly as climate variability and extreme climate events are expected to increase and temperatures to rise. IFPRI has a comparative advantage to be able to link changes in water investments directly with food outcomes at a disaggregated level.
CGIAR Priorities
4A, 4B, 4C, 4D
Countries of Planned Research
n/a
Intended Users
Governments, donors, private sector, water agencies, research institutions.
Outcome
Policymakers, the public and the private sector, and end-users develop water resources more sustainably and for the benefit of the poor
Impact
(A) Improved water (and food) security for the poor. (B) Enhanced sustainability and effectiveness of water resources development; enhanced long-term productive use of water resources in river basins."

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2009
Policy strategies
Detailed analysis of investment options for Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
2010
Policy strategies
Detailed analysis of investment options for Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
2011
Practices
Detailed analysis of investment options for Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia developed.

Output Title
4: Development of enhanced tools for the valuation of ecosystem services related to water.
Output Description
Under this research activity tools for the valuation of ecosystem services related to water are developed, linking water resource management to aquaculture outcomes, in particular. No new funding has been obtained in this area, thus the research implementation is currently limited to one project with WorldFish. With ecosystem services of water rapidly declining in most of the developing world as a result of rapid agricultural and economic development, analyses, policies and institutions that show the true value of these ecosystem services are urgently needed.
CGIAR Priorities
Countries of Planned Research
Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Mali, Vietnam
Intended Users
(A) Research partners, water agencies. (B) Water planning agencies, governments, donors.
Outcome
(A) Capacity of researchers to value water and related resources strengthened. (B) Policymakers use guidelines for better valuation of water and related natural resources.  
Impact
Improved valuation of water and related resources leads to enhanced water (and food) security for the poor"

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2009
Policy strategies
General research lessons developed based on application of tools to one case study site and expansion of tools to additional sites.
2010
Practices
Guidelines and best practice cases are developed
2011
Policy strategies
Application of tools in case study sites

Note: Financial Tables, Target Regions, CGIAR Priorities and Financing Sources show aggregated data for more than one MTP project and in particular for: - Theme 3: Systemwide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi) - Subtheme 3.1: Water Resource Allocation: Productivity and Environmental Impacts (GRP 22) - Subtheme 3.2: Land Resource Management for Poverty Reduction (GRP 39)


Allocation of Member, Non-Member Grants and other sources to projects, 2009-2011
in $millions

Project Member Actual
2009
Estimated
2010
Proposal
2011
Project Total
5.595
5.505
5.566
Theme 3: Natural Resources PoliciesMemberADB
0.183
0.006
0.000
Australia
0.136
0.031
0.388
Brazil
0.072
0.000
0.000
Canada
0.276
0.037
0.000
European Commission
0.019
0.000
0.000
FAO
0.075
0.150
0.000
Germany
0.433
0.668
1.275
IFAD
0.029
0.564
0.410
Italy
0.121
0.226
0.244
Norway
0.421
0.719
0.328
Switzerland
0.000
0.025
0.030
World Bank
1.364
0.566
0.372
Non MemberBill and Melinda Gates Foundation
0.000
0.253
0.916
Blue Moon Fund
0.085
0.000
0.000
Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa FARA
0.043
0.000
0.000
Foundation for Investment and Export Development
0.000
0.056
0.000
Howard G. Buffett Foundation
0.000
0.006
0.000
International Finance Corporation
0.000
0.025
0.000
Jordan
0.000
0.001
0.000
KickStart International
0.000
0.087
0.085
National Fadama Development Office
0.086
0.000
0.000
Others
0.532
0.684
0.450
Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
0.000
0.028
0.000
Stanford University
0.625
0.554
0.291
START Secretariat
0.018
0.000
0.000
Technical University of Denmark
0.041
0.000
0.000
United Nations University
0.005
0.000
0.000
University of Aarhus
0.000
0.014
0.000
University of Illinois
0.024
0.000
0.000
VirginiaTech
0.041
0.010
0.000
World Food Program (WFP)
0.010
0.000
0.000
Yale University
0.003
0.018
0.015
Unres+Other SourcesUnres+Other Sources
0.953
0.777
0.762


Allocation of Project Costs to CGIAR Priorities, 2009-2013
in $millions

Project Actual
2009
Estimated
2010
Proposal
2011
Plan 1
2012
Plan 2
2013
Priorities
Theme 3: Natural Resources Policies
Project Total
5.595
5.505
5.566
5.788
6.020
2A
0.407
0.401
0.405
0.421
0.438
2B
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.042
0.043
3A
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.029
0.030
3B
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.029
0.030
4A
0.997
0.981
0.992
1.031
1.073
4C
0.997
0.980
0.992
1.032
1.073
4D
1.028
1.010
1.022
1.063
1.106
5A
0.685
0.674
0.681
0.708
0.737
5C
0.624
0.614
0.621
0.646
0.672
5D
0.705
0.694
0.701
0.729
0.758
New Research Areas
0.056
0.055
0.056
0.058
0.060


Project investment by developing Region, 2009-2013
in $millions

Project Target Regions Actual
2009
Estimated
2010
Proposal
2011
Plan 1
2012
Plan 2
2013
Project Total
5.595
5.505
5.566
5.788
6.020
Theme 3: Natural Resources PoliciesAsia
1.364
1.463
1.515
1.577
1.644
CWANA
0.044
0.089
0.068
0.071
0.075
LAC
1.250
1.081
1.198
1.246
1.300
SSA
2.937
2.872
2.785
2.894
3.001