2009-2011
9: Urban Harvest
Centers/ProgramsCIP
Target RegionsAsia, CWANA, LAC, SSA
Countries of Planned Research Potential Beneficiary Countries
 
Bolivia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Kenya, Peru, Uganda
 
n/a
CGIAR Priorities
New Research Areas - New Research Areas
Financing Sources
Members: Canada, IDRC, World Bank

Non Members: CIAT, HarvestPlus/CP, Kilimo Trust, Natural Resources Institute (NRI), Others, Unres+Other Sources
Project Overview and Rationale

The developing world is increasingly urban. Forty percent of Africans and Asians now live in cities; in Latin America it is 80%. Some of the fastest rates of urban growth are in Africa, where an estimated 225 million more people will be living in cities by 2020. By that time, eight of the nine largest megacities in the world will be in developing countries. Urbanization in the developing world is also a migration of poverty and child malnutrition to towns and cities. In Latin America about 62% of the poor is now classified as urban. In Asia and Africa, the figure is about 40%. Poor families living in and around cities find themselves in a specifically urban poverty trap. While work is limited, food is expensive and takes up a major part of earnings. Services like education are more costly than in rural areas and insecurity is endemic. Lacking the social support networks common in rural communities, poor urban households are vulnerable to economic and political shocks. With these pressures on household financial resources, the family’s nutritional well-being and health are at risk. Poor urban families in the South suffer a “double health burden”, facing typically rural nutritional, respiratory and contagious diseases as well as the new “lifestyle diseases” such as obesity, heart disease, cancers and diabetes. Urban ecosystems are also at risk from the rapid growth of population and poverty. City services become overstretched, local natural resources deteriorate and it is usually the poorest people whose health and safety is most compromised by these environmental problems.

Increasing numbers of poor households living in and around cities are seeking direct ways to alleviate food insecurity and secure other aspects of their livelihood through cultivating areas of land and raising livestock. As many as 800 million are estimated to be involved in this strategy world-wide with some cities, such as Dar es Salaam and Kampala having more than a third of their households pursuing urban and peri-urban agriculture. In many countries such as Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Senegal, Poland and Thailand women predominate particularly due to their responsibility for household food security. Crop and livestock production thus offer potential solutions to food and income insecurity and can provide productive ways to conserve urban natural resources. At the same time, there is need to ensure that these benefits are not compromised by potential problems created by the agricultural activity itself. This concerns primarily the risk to densely settled urban producers and consumers from exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants that are concentrated in the urban environment. There are multiple, agriculture-related pathways – air, soil, water, plants, animals and their products – through which these contaminants can impact on human health.

Though urban areas in the developing world face socio-economic and environmental problems, they also present new concentrations of wealth which bring increased demand for livestock products, high-value crops and processed products as well as cut flowers and ornamental plants. Urban producers can increase their own income and food and nutrition security through better and lower cost access to diverse markets, the ability to quickly market high quality, perishable products and the advantage of establishing direct producer-consumer relations or short marketing chains. Research is needed into the actual and potential value chains and enterprise clusters linking producers to markets while paying attention to the needs and opportunities of both men and women including the young and old.

These different product markets have the potential to contribute to the economic and social development of households located along the entire rural-urban continuum. Despite the stereotype of rural agriculture and urban manufacturing, in practice the agricultural sector cross-cuts rural-urban boundaries and manufacturing and services are commonly found in rural areas. This overlap of sectors is underscored by the two-way flow of people, produce, inputs, financing and knowledge making up what is frequently referred to as rural-urban linkages, a significant portion of which is agriculture-related. This suggests that the inter-dependences between rural and urban are of greater importance than their sectoral separation. Analysis of rural-urban linkages can help us to understand where improvements in rural-to-urban food flows can contribute to better food security among the urban poor and higher incomes for rural producers. Treating the involvement of people in rural-urban flows as a heterogeneous group and recognizing differences among its members will lead to a better understanding of rural-urban linkages and development of gender responsive strategies in addressing food security for the urban poor. It can also identify where opportunities exist for urban food production to make a complementary contribution – either directly or via income opportunities – to household food and nutrition security.

Cities are concentrations of demand for a diversity of agricultural products. They are also nutrient sinks and repositories of other untapped natural resources. Nutrients are found in the vast quantities of wastewater and organic residues generated in urban and peri-urban areas. Cities also contain under-utilized land and water surfaces that can be put to productive use. The use of these urban resources also carries health risks, as do the use of agro-chemicals and animal raising in densely populated areas. Research is needed to identify where human health risks occur, who is affected, how to mitigate the risks, what mitigation measures is suitable for who, and how to support local producers to safely benefit form available urban resources.

The dense network of administrative jurisdictions, legal obligations, competing rights and policy prescriptions that reach into the lives of urban households is another key characteristic of cities. Agricultural activities are usually circumscribed and sometimes proscribed by ordinances and other regulations and frequently encounter competing rights for the resources deployed. Men and women have different access and control of resources and bargaining power in decision making in urban agriculture and if the national and local policies do not recognize this the interests, needs and constraints of both men and women may not equitably be addressed. Research on policies and institutions is needed to understand this situation and to develop strategies for stakeholder dialogue and platform building to better integrate urban agriculture in urban governance.



Project Outputs
Output Title
1: Innovative technologies and practices developed for strengthening livelihoods security and increasing productivity and marketing of agricultural commodities along the rural-to-urban continuum (2011)
Output Description

The goal of Urban Harvest is to stimulate the contribution of agriculture within and around cities to, alleviate poverty and increase food and nutrition security whilst contributing to the sustainability of urban livelihoods and the urban environment.

To address these objectives, a research framework has been developed which draws on earlier insights into sustainable livelihoods and urban ecosystems health and consists of three elements: Stakeholder and policy analysis and dialogue seeks understanding of the actors, policies and institutions concerned in urban agricultural activities and develops methods for communication and consensus among actors and legitimacy for urban agriculture in policy and regulatory schemes. The element of Livelihoods and markets targets production, processing, marketing and consumption systems along the rural-urban transect and identifies technology interventions to enhance incomes and increase food and nutrition security. Urban ecosystem health focuses research attention on the feedback mechanisms between agricultural activities and population, community and environmental health (see Annex 1). Urban Harvest applies a gender responsive approach in addressing its goal and objectives and has developed a gender statement to enhance gender mainstreaming in its research process.

The research under this output uses a gender sensitive livelihoods approach to understand the contribution of agriculture to the mix of livelihoods strategies of low income urban and peri-urban households and identifies strategies and technologies to enhance the contribution of agriculture to income and food security, both within production systems and along input and output marketing chains of high value urban and peri-urban (UPA) crops and livestock products. It is directly related to Priorities 3A goal 2 and 3B goal 1 which target improved livelihoods of poor farmers and laborers through increasing income from fresh marketing of fruits, vegetables and livestock products or through adding value via enhancing quality or through agro-processing activities. Research particularly addresses collective action for improved marketing as a key strategy. Some of the crops in these systems are also candidates for biofortification (sweetpotatoes, beans, potatoes) and provide opportunities for enhancing the nutritional status of beneficiaries, especially young children.

CGIAR Priorities
3A, 3B
Countries of Planned Research
Bolivia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Kenya, Peru, Uganda
Intended Users
Researchers, extension agents and CSOs at international and target country level, city agricultural officials, producer and processor organizations in target cities
Outcome
Innovations spread among producers in target cities and in ”contact cities”[1] [1] Contact cities include urban areas which participate in workshops, capacity-building activities and learning visits to target cities, but where no direct research activities are undertaken by this Project
Impact
Producers increase incomes through higher productivity and access to alternative markets"

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2009
Other kinds of knowledge
Contribution of horticulture to livelihoods determined in metropolitan regions in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador (with CIP Division 6)
2009
Policy strategies
At least two scaling out strategies identified for urban agriculture interventions in Peru, including targeting capacity building approaches for technical and administrative personnel
2009
Policy strategies
Viability of converting contaminant-prone urban food production into seedling enterprises tested in Kenya (with CIP, AVRDC, FCI)
2009
Practices
Collective action options identified for agricultural interventions for HIV-AIDS affected households established in Nakuru, Kenya (with ILRI)
2009
Practices
Livestock production framework for enhanced use and sale of animal source foods (ASFs) validated in Kampala (with CIAT)
2009
Practices
Model of “commercial villages” approach to agro-enterprise development tested for African leafy vegetables and sweetpotato in Nairobi (with FCI, CIP, AVRDC)
2010
Other kinds of knowledge
Relative opportunities and constraints of horticulture-based agro-enterprises along rural-urban transects in Peru and Bolivia assessed
2010
Policy strategies
Methods for increasing consumption of safe vegetables in Nairobi determined
2010
Practices
Collective action options for urban horticulture marketing determined from Kampala case study
2011
Other kinds of knowledge
Rural-urban linkage analysis applied to horticulture systems in Bandung metropolitan region, Indonesia
2011
Practices
Food and nutrition security interventions for HIV-AIDS affected households evaluated in two African cities

Output Title
2: Methods developed to enhance the safety and sustainability of agriculture along the rural-to-urban continuum and the uptake of urban sources of nutrients (2011)
Output Description

The research for output 2 benefits from ecosystems health thinking with a gender perspective to identify opportunities for nutrient recycling from solid and liquid organic residues in urban and peri-urban areas, to address water and soil quality issues and to measure and mitigate negative impacts on human health of biological and chemical contaminants – including agro-chemicals – which get into the food system through agriculture. This output utilizes the concept of rural-urban linkages to understand nutrient and biomass flows between rural and urban areas. This area of research relates to priority 4D, the sustainable agro-ecological intensification in low and high potential environments.

CGIAR Priorities
Countries of Planned Research
Bolivia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Kenya, Peru, Uganda
Intended Users
Policy makers, city officials, researchers, urban health professionals, CSOs
Outcome
Users integrate the methods into urban policies and planning
Impact
Reduced human health risks from UPA and enhanced productive use of urban natural resources in agriculture"

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2009
Policy strategies
Participatory risk assessment methods for livestock keeping evaluated in Kampala(with ILRI)
2009
Practices
Adaptation of rustic reservoir model for simple water treatment of irrigation water applied in two new horticultural systems
2009
Practices
Agricultural technologies for improved water management tested in Kampala
2009
Practices
Candidate technologies for agricultural recycling of organic wastes evaluated in Kampala
2010
Other kinds of knowledge
Contaminant pathways characterized in horticultural systems in the Bandung metropolitan region, Indonesia
2010
Policy strategies
Management options and capacity building strategies for agricultural recycling of organic wastes developed, based on Kampala, Nairobi and Nakuru studies
2010
Policy strategies
Rural-urban biomass flows and impact on rural and urban natural resources assessed in Kampala
2010
Practices
Enhanced agricultural recycling of domestic and agricultural wastes through use of micro-organisms validated in two sites in Latin America (with CIP)
2011
Other kinds of knowledge
Typology of exposure pathways for contaminants in horticultural production and marketing systems developed and mitigation options identified based on comparative case studies in Latin America, Africa and Asia

Output Title
3: Policy options and institutional and planning strategies to support safe and sustainable agricultural systems along the rural to urban continuum are developed (2012)
Output Description

Since peri-urban landscapes are mosaics of multiple land uses, often with conflicting demands on resources, research in this output has a spatial and institutional focus, analyzing changing patterns of land use within municipalities, the multiple stakeholders driving these changes and the way existing plans, policies, norms and by-laws address or not the competing uses of urban natural resources. Policy interventions are focused on methods for integrating agricultural use of natural resources within municipal planning and organization and for planning a more rational management of the different uses to maximize poverty alleviation, social inclusion and sustainability of the urban environment. This output is primarily aligned with Priority 4A, integrated land, water and forest management at landscape level.

CGIAR Priorities
Countries of Planned Research
Bolivia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Kenya, Peru, Uganda
Intended Users
Municipal authorities, producers, national governments, multilateral agencies
Outcome
Stakeholders involved in consultative  planning processes in  local government resulting in urban and peri-urban agriculture and NRM being  incorporated into policies and development targeting
Impact
Improved policies, reduced risks and better use of urban resources lead to increased food security and income contribution from UPA"

Output Target
Year Target Type Target Description
2009
Capacity
A participatory M&E plan implemented among stakeholders in metropolitan regions in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, involving platforms for healthy and sustainable horticulture (with CIP-Div 6 and 1)
2009
Capacity
Application of multi-stakeholder dialogue approach, including community awareness and capacity building to empower them to engage with city authorities in Kampala and Nairobi
2009
Policy strategies
Policy framework for safe and sustainable urban food production available in Lima and Kampala, involving by-laws, food quality standards (FQS) and/or certification of urban and peri-urban agricultural commodities (with CIAT and Polytechnic University of Madrid).
2009
Policy strategies
Strategies for inserting urban NRM and agriculture into land, waste and health policies developed in Nairobi
2010
Policy strategies
A participatory M&E plan for healthy and sustainable horticulture implemented among stakeholders in Bandung metropolitan region, Indonesia
2010
Policy strategies
Criteria and municipal-led implementation strategy for safe and sustainable urban food production established in other Latin American sites
2010
Policy strategies
Indicators developed to track policy implementation for reducing health risks from peri-urban pesticide use elaborated in Latin America and Africa
2011
Policy strategies
Decision-support tools developed for incorporating healthy and sustainable urban food production into municipal planning and policy-making, drawing on lessons from Latin America, Africa and Asia

Allocation of Member, Non-Member Grants and other sources to projects, 2007-2009
in $millions

Project Member Actual
2007
Estimated
2008
Proposal
2009
Project Total
1.196
0.873
1.618
Project 9: Urban HarvestMemberCanada
0.093
0.068
0.044
IDRC
0.388
0.389
0.410
World Bank
0.015
0.000
0.000
Non MemberCIAT
0.003
0.000
0.000
HarvestPlus/CP
0.000
0.000
0.276
Kilimo Trust
0.021
0.000
0.000
Natural Resources Institute (NRI)
0.010
0.000
0.000
Others
0.089
0.141
0.594
Unres+Other SourcesUnres+Other Sources
0.577
0.275
0.294


Allocation of Project Costs to CGIAR Priorities, 2007-2011
in $millions

Project Actual
2007
Estimated
2008
Proposal
2009
Plan 1
2010
Plan 2
2011
Priorities
Project 9: Urban Harvest
Project Total
1.196
0.873
1.618
3.305
2.092
New Research Areas
1.196
0.873
1.618
3.305
2.092


Project investment by developing Region, 2007-2011
in $millions

Project Target Regions Actual
2007
Estimated
2008
Proposal
2009
Plan 1
2010
Plan 2
2011
Project Total
1.196
0.873
1.618
3.305
2.092
Project 9: Urban HarvestAsia
0.023
0.018
0.011
0.012
0.012
CWANA
0.003
0.026
0.023
0.024
0.025
LAC
0.325
0.207
0.631
1.311
0.567
SSA
0.845
0.622
0.953
1.958
1.488